Unfortunately, obscure protocols provide very little real security. Compromised scada systems could lead to unmanageable power outage, energy flow disruption, provide dangerous state secret to competing or enemy states. What are the stories so far warnings of doom by famous people richard clark, former cybersecurity czar and terrorism expert claims that mock intrusion scenarios have always succeeded. This course provides a detailed look at how the ansiisa99 standards can be used to protect your critical control systems. This paper compares different scada cyber security. Ics is one term for a broader set of control systems, which include scada supervisory control and data acquisition dcs digital control system pcs process control system ems energy management system as automation system any other automated control system each industry has its own culture and set of terms. During much of that decade, the internet was still catching on. The systems to accomplish these functions are known as supervisory control and data acquisition scada sys tems. Systems similar to scada systems are routinely seen in factories, treatment plants etc. All scada system functions upgraded, tested and performances increased. Further information on these courses can be obtained here.
Supervisory control and data acquisition scada is a control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces for highlevel process supervisory management, but uses other peripheral devices such as programmable logic controller plc and discrete pid controllers to interface with the process plant or machinery. The term ics, as used throughout this report, includes supervisory control and data acquisition scada systems, process control systems, distributed control systems, and other control systems specific to any of the critical infrastructure industry sectors. Often the security of scada systems is based solely on the secrecy of these protocols. Abstract the purpose of this paper is to define what scada systems are and their application in modern industry and infrastructure, to elucidate the reasons for rising concern over the security of these. Automating electrical distributions systems by implementing a supervisory control and data acquisition scada system is the one of the most costeffective solutions for improving reliability, increasing utilization and cutting costs. We offer stationary or mobile solutions to meet growing demands with guaranteed. These functions and systems are increasingly vulnerable to potential harm and require. Scada and process industries supervisory control and data acquisition and industrial control systems,with their traditional reliance on proprietary networks and hardware,have long been considered immune to the cyber attacks suffered by corporate information systems. Highlighting the key issues that need to be addressed, the book begins with a. All supervisory control and data acquisition aspects of the scada system rely entirely on the. Scada systems are used in oil and gas pipeline and other remote control and monitoring applications, such as electrical transmission and distribution, and water. Scada systems are smart, intelligent control systems that acquire inputs from a variety of sensors and, in many instances, respond to the system in real time through actuators under the programs control.
This important tool efficiently manages utility assets, refineries and other critical industrial segments, but protecting scada networks from cyber attacks, hackers and even physical assault is becoming a test of will, cleverness and determination. Communication network general overview of scada communications. They form a solid foundation for efficient operational management and intelligent production analyses. The international society of automation offers courses on this topic. These systems are used in distribution systems such as water distribution and wastewater collection systems. In smaller scada systems, the supervisory computer may be composed of a single pc, in which case the hmi is a part of this computer.
Figure 1 how scada works a scada system for a power distribution application is a. Scada and m2m industrial internet energy summit, houston, tx june 23rd, 2015 presented by. Securing safetycritical scada in the internet of things. This paper provides an overview of the functions of scada and the fundamentals of operation of scada systems, including a brief description of the key manmachine interface. A detailed look at how the isaiec 62443 formerly isa 99 standards can be used to protect your critical control systems. Operators can shutdown the scada system completely with this command without exposing the development page. Instead of tcpip, they relied on specialist protocols, including modbus and profibus, for vendorneutral. Supervisory control and data acquisition scada systems are basically process control systems pcs that are used for monitoring, gathering, and analyzing realtime environmental data from a simple office building or a complex nuclear power plant. The scada system can function as a monitoringsupervisory system, control system or a combination thereof. In larger scada systems, the master station may include several hmis hosted on client computers, multiple servers for data acquisition, distributed software applications, and disaster recovery sites. Scada and industrial control systems along with the communication networks they use are the central nervous system for a vast array of sensors, alarms and switches that provide automated control and monitoring for these functions. Communication network general overview of scada communications without a properly designed communication network system, a scada system cannot exist. While the 90s may not seem that long ago, technology has progressed enormously since then. Steve jennis, svp corporate development, prismtech corporation.
Introduction and brief history of scada scada supervisory control and data acquisition has been around as long as there have been control systems. Common cybersecurity vulnerabilities in industrial control. Us policy response to cyber attack on scada systems supporting. Scada systems, including but not limited to the overall cryptographic system, shall not degrade the maintainability, operability, and its accessibility at emergency, of the original scada system without those security oriented addons. Security incidents and trends in scada and process industries. Finally, this guide is not solely intended for icss. Therefore, a number of standards and guidelines have been developed to support electric power utilities in their cyber security efforts. Pdf vulnerability assessment of cybersecurity for scada systems. However, scada systems evolve rapidly and are now penetrating the market of plants with a number of io channels of several 100 k. Fees includes course materials handouts, teacoffee, refreshments, international buffet lunch. Scada systems are used in distribution systems such as water distribution and wastewater collection systems, oil and natural. It also explores the procedural and technical differences between the security for traditional it environments and those solutions appropriate for scada or plant floor environments. All supervisory control and data acquisition aspects of the scada system rely entirely on the communication system to provide a conduit for flow of data between the supervisory controls.
Howard schmidt, former cybersecurity czar and business expert wellknown incidents computers and manuals seized in al qaeda training camps full of scada. Press buzzword to discuss cyberterrorism control systems is better term supervisory control and data acquisition monitor and control industrial systems oil and gas air traffic and railways power generation and transmission water management manufacturing defined by threat massive power blackout. Di discrete input do discrete output discrete signals also called digital signals provide an on or off input to a scada system. Scada systems are used to control dispersed assets where centralized data acquisition is as important as control i. Supervisory control and data acquisition scada systems support a broad range of application processes. The professional certificate in cybersecurity for automation, control, and scada systems is not currently scheduled.
Improving security for scada control systems semantic scholar. Several of the key issues and problems in modern scada systems, le. Scada technology quietly operates in the background of critical utility and industrial facilities nationwide. A system for connecting a number of computer systems to form a local area network. This blog will introduce scada fundamentals that will help analyze security considerations in the subsequent blog post. Do not rely on proprietary protocols or factory default configuration. The efficacy and challenges of scada and smart grid. Scada systems scada systems for dummies scada systems.
Unfortunately,both academic research and inthefield experience indicate. Hacking critical infrastructures the cristal project. Download handbook of scadacontrol systems security pdf ebook. An introduction to scada systems technical articles. Supervisory control and data acquisition scada introduction.
The manufacturer built all the hardware, software, installed the equipment and did all the programming. Cybersecurity for automation, control, and scada systems. Do not rely on proprietary protocols to protect your system. Have similar functions to scada systems, but field data gathering or control units are usually located within a more confined area.
Scada system cyber security a comparison of standards. Many techniques now exist for recording measurement data in a form that permits subsequent analysis, particularly for looking at the historical behaviour of measured parameters in fault diagnosis procedures. Mar 27, 2012 supervisory control and data acquisition scada systems are used for remote monitoring and control in the delivery of essential services products such as electricity, natural gas, water, waste treatment and transportation. Guide to industrial control systems ics security nvlpubsnist. Supervisory control and data acquisition scada control systems. Simatic scada systems as the key to greater productivity, simatic scada systems combine efficient engineering with powerful archiving and maximum data security. Also certain operating systems and applications running on scada systems, which are unconventional to typical it personnel, may not operate correctly with commercial offtheshelf it cyber security solutions. The first scada systems utilized data acquisition by means of. Data acquisition scada systems, an industrial control systemsics, have a pivotal role in managing and controlling. Pdf cybersecurity of scada and other industrial control.
Since the emergence of internet and world wide web technologies, these systems were integrated with business systems and became more exposed to cyber threats. As computer technology improved, scada systems evolved to take advantage of the advancement. Aug 31, 2015 an introduction to scada systems august 31, 2015 by donald krambeck it also details what the system is made up of, how they optimize performance in largescale systems, and how these systems still poses a threat to a companys vulnerability to data and resources. Pcss are designed to automate electronic systems based on a predetermined set of conditions, such. Scada supervisory control and data acquisition is one of the most common types of industrial control systems ics. Some scada systems use unique, proprietary protocols for communications between field devices and servers. Scada v dcs communications may be via a local area network. Pdf vulnerability assessment of cybersecurity for scada. The handbook of scadacontrol systems security is a elementary outline of security concepts, methodologies, and associated information pertaining to the supervisory control and data acquisition scada strategies and technology that quietly perform inside the background of important utility and industrial facilities worldwide. Securing scada systems in light of their importance and consequence of exploits is a great necessity.
The first scada systems utilized data acquisition by means of panels of meters, lights and strip chart recorders. Accuses industry of spending more on coffee than security. Supervisory control and data acquisition scada systems have been part of the process industries for many decades and cyber security measures need to grow as technology advances. Scada system signals the very basic components of a scada system are these signals. Supervisory control and data acquisition scada systems, distributed. It also details what the system is made up of, how they optimize performance in largescale systems, and how these systems still poses a threat to a companys. Scada cyber security 4 introduction the industrial control systems ics, including scada, are known for their high availability. Risk management for industrial control systems ics and. Supervisory control and data acquisition scada systems, distributed control systems dcs, and other control system configurations such as programmable logic controllers plc, while addressing their unique performance, reliability, and safety requirements. His focus is on research and development in the cybersecurity and control systems space. A taxonomy of cyber attacks on scada systems eecs at uc.
The reliable operation of modern infrastructures depends on computerized systems and scada systems. Supervisory control and data acquisition balance generation and demand dispatching monitor flows and observe system limits coordinate maintenance activities, emergency response functions localized power plants, substations feedback controls e. Vulnerability assessment is a requirement of nercs cybersecurity standards for electric power systems. Scada systems are highly distributed systems used to monitor and control geographicallydispersed assets where centralized data acquisition, control, and status reporting are critical to system operation. Trying to upgrade these systems means adding newer technology on top of 90s technology. If the supervisory control and data acquisition scada system computers had remained responsive. The purpose is to study the impact of a cyber attack on supervisory control and data. Scada networks are a common framework of control systems used in industrial operations.
The demand for high availability remains the number one requirement within the industry. The term industrial control system ics refers to a variety of systems comprised of computers, electrical and mechanical devices, and manual processes overseen by humans. If the supervisory control and data acquisition scada system computers had remained responsive to the commands of the olympic controllers, the. In the past, they were localised and isolated from more conventional networks. In the mid 2000s ken was a manufactures rep for scada telemetry and instrumentation for the wastewater, drinking water, and utility sectors in new england. In addition, it is a practical case study designed to illustrate scenarios posing a risk to companies and to show how these are to be dealt with. More recently the industry desires an additional strong requirement, namely more accessibility by. This is the same binary signal format used in computer processors.295 1274 1248 1412 210 1291 104 833 1415 93 376 486 1018 1359 944 226 928 263 654 447 1117 1418 94 1107 884 77 445 749 989 891 979 1419